Safety of Injections

“A safe injection does no harm to the recipient, does not expose the healthcare worker to any risk, and does not result in waste that is dangerous for the community”

Total number of injections per annum 12 billion (prophylactic and curative)
Ratio of therapeutic to vaccination injections 20:1 (95% of all injections are therapeutic)
Diseases most frequently contracted through unsafe injection practices Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS.
Estimated proportion of viral hepatitis due to unsafe injection practices in selected countries where information is available:
Hepatitis B:
  • Moldova: 50% (1994-1995) 1
  • Romania: 30% (1997) 2
  • India: 60% 3
  • Taiwan: 60% (1977) 4
Hepatitis C:
  • Egypt: >40% (1996) 5
Estimated total burden of infection per annum attributable to unsafe injection practices 6
  • 8-16 million hepatitis B cases
  • 2-4.5 million hepatitis C cases
  • 75,000 – 150,000 HIV infection cases
Main factors contributing to transmission of bloodborne pathogens through injections
  • Overuse of therapeutic injections
  • Lack of awareness of risk
  • Lack of syringe and needle supplies leading to syringe and needle reuse
  • Lack of safe disposal infrastructures
Estimated annual public health cost generated by unsafe injection practice
  • 26 million of years of life lost 7
  • Direct medical cost of $535 million USD
Estimated annual deaths due to unsafe injection practices 1.3 million deaths 7
Countries where unsafe injection practices have been reported Worldwide
Countries where syringe/needle re-use is most often reported Africa, Asia, and former Eastern bloc countries
Estimated proportion of syringe and needle re-use by geographical area
  • Former eastern European block: 15%
  • Middle East: 15%
  • India: 50%
  • China: 50%
  • Sub-Saharan Africa: 50%
  • Central and South America: N/A
  • East Asia, Pacific Islands: 50%
Costs to achieve a safe and appropriate use of injections
  • Cost of information, education, and communication / behavior change campaigns.
  • Cost of providing sufficient injection equipment.
  • Cost of waste disposal infrastructure.
Savings generated by a safe and appropriate use of injections
  • Savings generated by appropriate use of medications.
  • Savings generated by using oral medication rather than injection, including staffing costs.
  • Savings generated by the prevention of chronic viral infections.

Original article located at:
https://apps.who.int/inf-fs/en/fact232.html

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Source:

Unsafe Injections in the Developing World and Transmission of Bloodborne Pathegens: A Review.
Simonsen L, Kane A, Lloyd J, Zaffran M, Kane M. Bull World Health Organ. 1999;77(10):789-800. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Read this entire source

Source:

The Global Burden of Disease Attributable to Contaminated Injections Given in Health Care Settings
Anja M Hauri, Gregory L Armstrong and Yvan J F Hutin

Read this entire source